Finnlandia

Review of: Finnlandia

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On 08.10.2020
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Finnlandia

Am Samstag der letzte Abend - es gibt noch 2 Tische frei. Finlandia-hiihto ist der größte Skimarathon in Finnland. Der Lauf gehört der Serie der Worldloppet-Läufe an. Das Rennen wird jährlich Ende Februar. Entdecken Sie Finnlandia, Op von Sir Alexander Gibson and Royal Philharmonic Orchestra bei Amazon Music. Werbefrei streamen oder als CD und MP3.

Finnlandia Kurzinhalt

Entdecken Sie Finnlandia, Op von Sir Alexander Gibson and Royal Philharmonic Orchestra bei Amazon Music. Werbefrei streamen oder als CD und MP3. finnlandia - Das Jh. war die Zeit der politischen Neuordnung nach den napoleonischen Kriegen, des Kapitalismus und der. Finlandia-hiihto ist der größte Skimarathon in Finnland. Der Lauf gehört der Serie der Worldloppet-Läufe an. Das Rennen wird jährlich Ende Februar. Kategorie/Land/Jahr, Spielfilm, Deutschland Regie, Eleni Ampelakiotou, Gregor Schnitzler. Darsteller, Caroline Baehr, Marc Hosemann, Erdal Yildiz. DIE FINNLANDIA ABENDE mit Erja und Erwin Wüthrich-Viinikka finden nach vielen erfolgreichen Jahren in Cham und Mettmenstetten bereits zum. Finnlandia. Sophie verliert ihren Mann Psychodrama. Co-Regie: Gregor Schnitzler ('Soloalbum'). Bewertung. Stars. Bewertung. Redaktions Kritik. Bilder. Am Samstag der letzte Abend - es gibt noch 2 Tische frei.

Finnlandia

finnlandia - Das Jh. war die Zeit der politischen Neuordnung nach den napoleonischen Kriegen, des Kapitalismus und der. Kategorie/Land/Jahr, Spielfilm, Deutschland Regie, Eleni Ampelakiotou, Gregor Schnitzler. Darsteller, Caroline Baehr, Marc Hosemann, Erdal Yildiz. Entdecken Sie Finnlandia, Op von Sir Alexander Gibson and Royal Philharmonic Orchestra bei Amazon Music. Werbefrei streamen oder als CD und MP3.

In Finlandia vivono 5,5 milioni di persone, per la maggior parte concentrate nelle regioni meridionali.

La Finlandia fece parte del Regno di Svezia dal XII secolo al , quando divenne un granducato autonomo all'interno dell' Impero Russo fino alla rivoluzione del Il 6 dicembre di quell'anno la Finlandia ottenne l'indipendenza, seguita da una guerra civile terminata con la sconfitta dei "Rossi" filo- bolscevichi da parte dei filo- conservatori " Bianchi " sostenuti dall' Impero tedesco.

Dopo un breve tentativo di stabilire una monarchia nello stato, la Finlandia divenne una repubblica. L'esperienza finlandese della Seconda guerra mondiale ha coinvolto tre conflitti separati: la Guerra d'inverno - e la Guerra di continuazione - contro l' Unione Sovietica , e la Guerra di Lapponia contro la Germania nazista.

In ogni guerra, l'esercito della Repubblica di Finlandia era guidato da C. Mannerheim , maresciallo di Finlandia. Dopo la fine della guerra, la Finlandia ha aderito all' Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite ONU nel , all' Organizzazione per la cooperazione e lo sviluppo economico OCSE nel , all' Unione europea nel e alla zona Euro fin dal suo inizio nel Durante questo tempo, ha costruito uno stato sociale vasto in stile nordico.

La Finlandia era in ritardo rispetto all' industrializzazione , rimanendo uno stato in gran parte agricolo fino al luglio del Il territorio dell'odierna Finlandia fu abitato da gruppi di Lapponi e successivamente invaso dai Finni , un'etnia appartenente ai popoli ugrofinnici , che occuparono la Carelia a ondate migratorie successive tra il e il d.

Nel divenne un granducato svedese. Con l'annessione da parte della Moscovia dello stato di Novgorod nel , la Svezia diede il via due anni dopo alla conquista dell'Ingria.

In questo periodo le incursioni russe devastarono ripetutamente il territorio finnico con saccheggi e spoliazioni fino a quando, nel l'intera Finlandia venne occupata.

I finlandesi tuttora chiamano questo periodo "Isoviha", ovvero "Grande Rabbia". Il ramo occidentale Ahvenkoski del fiume Kymijoki fungeva da confine tra la Svezia e la Russia dal al Nel , con la compiacenza di Napoleone, con la pace di Hamina , che pose fine alla guerra di Finlandia , l'intero territorio finlandese venne conquistato dalle armate dello Zar di Russia Alessandro I , rimanenedo un granducato autonomo all'interno dell'Impero russo, fino al I primi francobolli finlandesi datano , mentre i primi francobolli russi sono del Quelli che tuttora dai finlandesi sono chiamati "Gli anni della Grande Oppressione" , terminarono il 26 novembre quando il generale in capo tedesco Erich Ludendorff ricevette emissari finlandesi e accolse la loro richiesta d'inviare un corpo di spedizione in Finlandia in appoggio alla prevista richiesta di indipendenza finlandese.

La Russia, in piena rivoluzione, riconobbe l'indipendenza della Finlandia il 31 dicembre obtorto collo. I primi erano sostenuti dai sovietici, i secondi dai tedeschi.

Durante la seconda guerra mondiale , la Finlandia venne attaccata dalle truppe sovietiche. Le dure condizioni imposte dal trattato di pace di Mosca spinsero il governo finlandese all'alleanza con la Germania nazista e all'avvio della guerra di continuazione contro i sovietici.

I trattati di Parigi firmati con l'unione Sovietica comportarono tuttavia ulteriori obbligazioni e restrizioni per la Finlandia nei confronti dell'URSS oltre a concessioni territoriali a quest'ultima di ulteriori territori finlandesi tra cui lo sbocco al Mare di Barents e parte della Carelia.

Vasti bracci di mare, laghi e corsi d'acqua restano ghiacciati fino a 8 mesi l'anno. Nella parte sud-orientale del paese vi sono numerosissimi laghi decine di migliaia, spesso comunicanti fra loro.

Altri sono anche:. Hanno un percorso breve e le loro acque sono utilizzate per la produzione di energia elettrica.

Il clima della Finlandia appartiene alla fascia climatica temperata fredda, data la latitudine. Esso ha un forte carattere di "transizione" tra i climi continentali delle vaste plaghe russo - siberiane e i climi oceanici delle regioni atlantiche a ovest : questo soprattutto durante l' inverno , quando la direzione di provenienza del vento influenza enormemente la temperatura.

In certe annate la Finlandia conosce escursioni termiche molto elevate nel medio periodo. Inoltre i valori di "temperatura media" tendono ad avere significato solo se considerati nel lungo periodo, dato che possono variare di parecchio da anno ad anno.

Gli immigrati sono prevalentemente di origine europea, con maggioranze russe, estoni e svedesi [13].

Gli ebrei in Finlandia hanno una presenza organizzata dal XIX secolo ai giorni nostri. Secondo i dati dell'Istituto finlandese di statistica le religioni professate dalla popolazione finlandese sono [14] :.

Secondo la costituzione finlandese le lingue nazionali sono il finlandese e lo svedese. Gli affari relativi alla sicurezza nazionale sono divisi tra il presidente e il ministro capo.

Prima della riforma del , le province lääni , pl. Le province sono state abolite nel A livello culturale sono presenti inoltre le province storiche della Finlandia in finlandese maakunnat o provinssit — singolare maakunta o provinssi , in svedese landskap.

La competenza del servizio scolastico spetta ai comuni. Tra le materie obbligatorie vi sono le due lingue ufficiali e un'altra lingua straniera.

In tutto le materie della scuola dell'obbligo sono:. Finita la scuola dell'obbligo si pone la scelta fra una scuola superiore generalista chiamata anche scuola secondaria superiore, organizzata in modo molto individuale nella quale si frequentano alcuni corsi obbligatori e corsi a scelta dello studente e la formazione professionale nella quale alle lezioni di teoria si affiancano periodi di apprendistato o affiancamento.

Finland rejected Marshall aid , in apparent deference to Soviet desires. However, the United States provided secret development aid and helped the Social Democratic Party, in hopes of preserving Finland's independence.

Valmet was founded to create materials for war reparations. After the reparations had been paid off, Finland continued to trade with the Soviet Union in the framework of bilateral trade.

The average number of births per woman declined from a baby boom peak of 3. Officially claiming to be neutral , Finland lay in the grey zone between the Western countries and the Soviet Union.

This was extensively exploited by president Urho Kekkonen against his opponents. He maintained an effective monopoly on Soviet relations from on, which was crucial for his continued popularity.

In politics, there was a tendency of avoiding any policies and statements that could be interpreted as anti-Soviet. This phenomenon was given the name " Finlandization " by the West German press.

Despite close relations with the Soviet Union, Finland maintained a market economy. Various industries benefited from trade privileges with the Soviets, which explains the widespread support that pro-Soviet policies enjoyed among business interests in Finland.

Economic growth was rapid in the postwar era, and by Finland's GDP per capita was the 15th-highest in the world.

In the s and '80s, Finland built one of the most extensive welfare states in the world. In , President Urho Kekkonen's failing health forced him to retire after holding office for 25 years.

Finland reacted cautiously to the collapse of the Soviet Union, but swiftly began increasing integration with the West.

On 21 September , Finland unilaterally declared the Paris Peace Treaty obsolete, following the German reunification decision nine days earlier.

Miscalculated macroeconomic decisions, a banking crisis , the collapse of its largest trading partner the Soviet Union , and a global economic downturn caused a deep early s recession in Finland.

The depression bottomed out in , and Finland saw steady economic growth for more than ten years.

Financial and product market regulation were loosened. Some state enterprises have been privatized and there have been some modest tax cuts.

The Finnish Lakeland is the area with the most lakes in the country; many of the major cities in the area, most notably Tampere , Jyväskylä and Kuopio , are located in the immediate vicinity of the large lakes.

Much of the geography of Finland is a result of the Ice Age. The glaciers were thicker and lasted longer in Fennoscandia compared with the rest of Europe.

Their eroding effects have left the Finnish landscape mostly flat with few hills and fewer mountains. The retreating glaciers have left the land with morainic deposits in formations of eskers.

These are ridges of stratified gravel and sand, running northwest to southeast, where the ancient edge of the glacier once lay. Among the biggest of these are the three Salpausselkä ridges that run across southern Finland.

Having been compressed under the enormous weight of the glaciers, terrain in Finland is rising due to the post-glacial rebound.

As a result, the old sea bottom turns little by little into dry land: the surface area of the country is expanding by about 7 square kilometres 2.

The landscape is covered mostly by coniferous taiga forests and fens , with little cultivated land. The forest consists of pine , spruce , birch , and other species.

The most common type of rock is granite. It is a ubiquitous part of the scenery, visible wherever there is no soil cover.

Moraine or till is the most common type of soil, covered by a thin layer of humus of biological origin.

Podzol profile development is seen in most forest soils except where drainage is poor. Gleysols and peat bogs occupy poorly drained areas.

Phytogeographically , Finland is shared between the Arctic, central European, and northern European provinces of the Circumboreal Region within the Boreal Kingdom.

According to the WWF , the territory of Finland can be subdivided into three ecoregions : the Scandinavian and Russian taiga , Sarmatic mixed forests , and Scandinavian Montane Birch forest and grasslands.

Taiga covers most of Finland from northern regions of southern provinces to the north of Lapland.

On the southwestern coast, south of the Helsinki- Rauma line, forests are characterized by mixed forests, that are more typical in the Baltic region.

In the extreme north of Finland, near the tree line and Arctic Ocean, Montane Birch forests are common. Similarly, Finland has a diverse and extensive range of fauna.

There are at least sixty native mammalian species, breeding bird species, over 70 fish species, and 11 reptile and frog species present today, many migrating from neighboring countries thousands of years ago.

Large and widely recognized wildlife mammals found in Finland are the brown bear , gray wolf , wolverine , and elk. The brown bear, which is also nicknamed as the "king of the forest" by the Finns, is the country's official national animal, [91] which also occur on the coat of arms of the Satakunta region is a crown-headed black bear carrying a sword, [92] possibly referring to the regional capital city of Pori , whose Swedish name Björneborg and the Latin name Arctopolis literally means "bear city" or "bear fortress".

The latter is considered an indicator of old-growth forest connectivity, and has been declining because of landscape fragmentation.

Atlantic salmon remains the favourite of fly rod enthusiasts. The endangered Saimaa ringed seal , one of only three lake seal species in the world, exists only in the Saimaa lake system of southeastern Finland, down to only seals today.

The main factor influencing Finland's climate is the country's geographical position between the 60th and 70th northern parallels in the Eurasian continent's coastal zone.

In the Köppen climate classification , the whole of Finland lies in the boreal zone , characterized by warm summers and freezing winters.

Within the country, the temperateness varies considerably between the southern coastal regions and the extreme north, showing characteristics of both a maritime and a continental climate.

Finland is near enough to the Atlantic Ocean to be continuously warmed by the Gulf Stream. The Gulf Stream combines with the moderating effects of the Baltic Sea and numerous inland lakes to explain the unusually warm climate compared with other regions that share the same latitude , such as Alaska , Siberia , and southern Greenland.

In northern Finland, particularly in Lapland, the winters are long and cold, while the summers are relatively warm but short. The winter of the north lasts for about days with permanent snow cover from about mid-October to early May.

The Finnish climate is suitable for cereal farming only in the southernmost regions, while the northern regions are suitable for animal husbandry.

A quarter of Finland's territory lies within the Arctic Circle and the midnight sun can be experienced for more days the farther north one travels.

At Finland's northernmost point, the sun does not set for 73 consecutive days during summer, and does not rise at all for 51 days during winter.

Finland consists of 19 regions , called maakunta in Finnish and landskap in Swedish. The regions are governed by regional councils which serve as forums of cooperation for the municipalities of a region.

The main tasks of the regions are regional planning and development of enterprise and education. In addition, the public health services are usually organized on the basis of regions.

Currently, the only region where a popular election is held for the council is Kainuu. Other regional councils are elected by municipal councils, each municipality sending representatives in proportion to its population.

In addition to inter-municipal cooperation, which is the responsibility of regional councils, each region has a state Employment and Economic Development Centre which is responsible for the local administration of labour, agriculture, fisheries, forestry, and entrepreneurial affairs.

The Finnish Defence Forces regional offices are responsible for the regional defence preparations and for the administration of conscription within the region.

Regions represent dialectal, cultural, and economic variations better than the former provinces , which were purely administrative divisions of the central government.

Historically, regions are divisions of historical provinces of Finland , areas which represent dialects and culture more accurately.

The fundamental administrative divisions of the country are the municipalities , which may also call themselves towns or cities.

They account for half of public spending. Spending is financed by municipal income tax, state subsidies, and other revenue.

As of [update] , there are municipalities, [8] and most have fewer than 6, residents. In addition to municipalities, two intermediate levels are defined.

Municipalities co-operate in seventy sub-regions and nineteen regions. These are governed by the member municipalities and have only limited powers.

Sami people have a semi-autonomous Sami native region in Lapland for issues on language and culture. The land area is given in km 2 , and the density in inhabitants per km 2 land area.

The figures are as of 31 July The capital region — comprising Helsinki , Vantaa , Espoo and Kauniainen — forms a continuous conurbation of over 1.

However, common administration is limited to voluntary cooperation of all municipalities, e. The Constitution of Finland defines the political system; Finland is a parliamentary republic within the framework of a representative democracy.

The Prime Minister is the country's most powerful person. The current version of the constitution was enacted on 1 March , and was amended on 1 March Citizens can run and vote in parliamentary, municipal, presidential and European Union elections.

Finland has had for most of its independence a semi-presidential system , but in the last few decades the powers of the President have been diminished.

In constitution amendments, which came into effect in or and also with a new drafted constitution of , amended in , the President's position has become primarily a ceremonial office.

However, the President still leads the nation's foreign politics together with the Council of State and is the commander-in-chief of the Defence Forces.

Direct, one- or two-stage elections are used to elect the president for a term of six years and for a maximum of two consecutive 6-year terms.

The current president is Sauli Niinistö ; he took office on 1 March Former presidents were K. Relander — , P. Mannerheim — , J.

The current president was elected from the ranks of the National Coalition Party for the first time since The presidency between and the present was instead held by a member of the Social Democratic Party or the Centre Party.

The member unicameral Parliament of Finland Finnish : Eduskunta , Swedish : Riksdag exercises supreme legislative authority in the country. It may alter the constitution and ordinary laws, dismiss the cabinet, and override presidential vetoes.

Its acts are not subject to judicial review; the constitutionality of new laws is assessed by the parliament's constitutional law committee.

The parliament is elected for a term of four years using the proportional D'Hondt method within a number of multi-seat constituencies through the most open list multi-member districts.

Various parliament committees listen to experts and prepare legislation. Since universal suffrage was introduced in , the parliament has been dominated by the Centre Party former Agrarian Union , the National Coalition Party , and the Social Democrats.

Their lowest common total of MPs, , was reached in the elections. For a few decades after , the Communists were a strong fourth party.

Due to the electoral system of proportional representation, and the relative reluctance of voters to switch their support between parties, the relative strengths of the parties have commonly varied only slightly from one election to another.

However, there have been some long-term trends, such as the rise and fall of the Communists during the Cold War; the steady decline into insignificance of the Liberals and its predecessors from to ; and the rise of the Green League since In the s, the Finns Party achieved exceptional success, increasing its representation in the election from 5 to 39 seats, surpassing the Centre Party.

The Parliament can be dissolved by a recommendation of the Prime Minister, endorsed by the President. This procedure has never been used, although the parliament was dissolved eight times under the pre constitution, when this action was the sole prerogative of the president.

After the parliamentary elections on 19 April , the seats were divided among eight parties as follows: []. After parliamentary elections, the parties negotiate among themselves on forming a new cabinet the Finnish Government , which then has to be approved by a simple majority vote in the parliament.

The cabinet can be dismissed by a parliamentary vote of no confidence, although this rarely happens the last time in , as the parties represented in the cabinet usually make up a majority in the parliament.

The cabinet exercises most executive powers, and originates most of the bills that the parliament then debates and votes on.

It is headed by the Prime Minister of Finland , and consists of him or her, of other ministers, and of the Chancellor of Justice. Each minister heads his or her ministry, or, in some cases, has responsibility for a subset of a ministry's policy.

After the prime minister, the most powerful minister is the minister of finance. The incumbent Minister of Finance is Matti Vanhanen. As no one party ever dominates the parliament, Finnish cabinets are multi-party coalitions.

As a rule, the post of prime minister goes to the leader of the biggest party and that of the minister of finance to the leader of the second biggest.

The judicial system of Finland is a civil law system divided between courts with regular civil and criminal jurisdiction and administrative courts with jurisdiction over litigation between individuals and the public administration.

Finnish law is codified and based on Swedish law and in a wider sense, civil law or Roman law. The court system for civil and criminal jurisdiction consists of local courts käräjäoikeus , tingsrätt , regional appellate courts hovioikeus , hovrätt , and the Supreme Court korkein oikeus , högsta domstolen.

The administrative branch of justice consists of administrative courts hallinto-oikeus , förvaltningsdomstol and the Supreme Administrative Court korkein hallinto-oikeus , högsta förvaltningsdomstolen.

In addition to the regular courts, there are a few special courts in certain branches of administration. There is also a High Court of Impeachment for criminal charges against certain high-ranking officeholders.

Some crime types are above average, notably the high homicide rate for Western Europe. Finland has successfully fought against government corruption, which was more common in the s and '80s.

In , Transparency International criticized the lack of transparency of the system of Finnish political finance. Nine Ministers of Government submitted incomplete funding reports and even more of the members of parliament.

The law includes no punishment of false funds reports of the elected politicians. Finland has been ranked above average among the world's countries in democracy , [] press freedom , [] and human development.

Amnesty International has expressed concern regarding some issues in Finland, such as alleged permitting of stopovers of CIA rendition flights , the imprisonment of objectors to military service , and societal discrimination against Romani people and members of other ethnic and linguistic minorities.

According to the constitution, the president currently Sauli Niinistö leads foreign policy in cooperation with the government, except that the president has no role in EU affairs.

Finland has one of the world's most extensive welfare systems, one that guarantees decent living conditions for all residents: Finns, and non-citizens.

Since the s the social security has been cut back, but still the system is one of the most comprehensive in the world. Created almost entirely during the first three decades after World War II, the social security system was an outgrowth of the traditional Nordic belief that the state was not inherently hostile to the well-being of its citizens, but could intervene benevolently on their behalf.

According to some social historians, the basis of this belief was a relatively benign history that had allowed the gradual emergence of a free and independent peasantry in the Nordic countries and had curtailed the dominance of the nobility and the subsequent formation of a powerful right wing.

Finland's history has been harsher than the histories of the other Nordic countries, but not harsh enough to bar the country from following their path of social development.

The Finnish Defence Forces consist of a cadre of professional soldiers mainly officers and technical personnel , currently serving conscripts, and a large reserve.

A universal male conscription is in place, under which all male Finnish nationals above 18 years of age serve for 6 to 12 months of armed service or 12 months of civilian non-armed service.

Approximately women choose voluntary military service every year. The army consists of a highly mobile field army backed up by local defence units.

The army defends the national territory and its military strategy employs the use of the heavily forested terrain and numerous lakes to wear down an aggressor, instead of attempting to hold the attacking army on the frontier.

Finnish defence expenditure per capita is one of the highest in the European Union. The term total means that all sectors of the government and economy are involved in the defence planning.

The armed forces are under the command of the Chief of Defence currently General Jarmo Lindberg , who is directly subordinate to the president in matters related to military command.

The branches of the military are the army , the navy , and the air force. The border guard is under the Ministry of the Interior but can be incorporated into the Defence Forces when required for defence readiness.

The economy of Finland has a per capita output equal to that of other European economies such as those of France, Germany, Belgium , or the UK.

Primary production represents 2. The gross domestic product peaked in As of [update] , the country's economy is at the level.

Finland has significant timber, mineral iron , chromium , copper , nickel , and gold , and freshwater resources.

Knowledge-intensive services have also resulted in the smallest and slow-growth sectors — especially agriculture and low-technology manufacturing — being ranked the second largest after Ireland.

Finland's climate and soils make growing crops a particular challenge. Annual precipitation is usually sufficient, but it occurs almost exclusively during the winter months, making summer droughts a constant threat.

In response to the climate, farmers have relied on quick-ripening and frost-resistant varieties of crops, and they have cultivated south-facing slopes as well as richer bottomlands to ensure production even in years with summer frosts.

Most farmland was originally either forest or swamp, and the soil has usually required treatment with lime and years of cultivation to neutralize excess acid and to improve fertility.

Irrigation has generally not been necessary, but drainage systems are often needed to remove excess water. Finland's agriculture has been efficient and productive—at least when compared with farming in other European countries.

Forests play a key role in the country's economy, making it one of the world's leading wood producers and providing raw materials at competitive prices for the crucial wood-processing industries.

As in agriculture, the government has long played a leading role in forestry, regulating tree cutting, sponsoring technical improvements, and establishing long-term plans to ensure that the country's forests continue to supply the wood-processing industries.

To maintain the country's comparative advantage in forest products, Finnish authorities moved to raise lumber output toward the country's ecological limits.

In , the government published the Forest plan, drawn up by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. Private sector employees amount to 1.

Gender segregation between male-dominated professions and female-dominated professions is higher than in the US. The unemployment rate was 9.

As of [update] , 2. The average size is 2. Residential buildings total 1. There are 2. However, second quarter of saw a slow economic growth.

Unemployment rate fell to a near one-decade low in June, marking private consumption growth much higher. Finland has the highest concentration of cooperatives relative to its population.

As of [update] , Finland has roughly the lowest industrial electricity prices in the EU equal to France.

In , the energy market was around 90 terawatt hours and the peak demand around 15 gigawatts in winter.

This means that the energy consumption per capita is around 7. The fifth AREVA - Siemens -built reactor — the world's largest at MWe and a focal point of Europe's nuclear industry — has faced many delays and is currently scheduled to be operational by —, a decade after the original planned opening.

The Onkalo spent nuclear fuel repository is currently under construction at the Olkiluoto Nuclear Power Plant in the municipality of Eurajoki , on the west coast of Finland, by the company Posiva.

Finland's road system is utilized by most internal cargo and passenger traffic. The main international passenger gateway is Helsinki Airport , which handled about 17 million passengers in Oulu Airport is the second largest, whilst another 25 airports have scheduled passenger services.

Helsinki has an optimal location for great circle i. These services are branded as "Allegro" trains. The journey from Helsinki to Saint Petersburg takes only three and a half hours.

A high-speed rail line is planned between Helsinki and Turku , with a line from the capital to Tampere also proposed. The majority of international cargo shipments are handled at ports.

There is passenger traffic from Helsinki and Turku, which have ferry connections to Tallinn , Mariehamn , Stockholm and Travemünde.

The Helsinki-Tallinn route — one of the busiest passenger sea routes in the world — has also been served by a helicopter line, and the Helsinki-Tallinn Tunnel has been proposed to provide railway services between the two cities.

Initially, most of the economic development was based on two broad groups of export-led industries, the "metal industry" metalliteollisuus and "forest industry" metsäteollisuus.

The "metal industry" includes shipbuilding, metalworking, the automotive industry , engineered products such as motors and electronics , and production of metals and alloys including steel , copper and chromium.

Many of the world's biggest cruise ships , including MS Freedom of the Seas and the Oasis of the Seas have been built in Finnish shipyards.

However, in recent decades, the Finnish economy has diversified, with companies expanding into fields such as electronics Nokia , metrology Vaisala , petroleum Neste , and video games Rovio Entertainment , and is no longer dominated by the two sectors of metal and forest industry.

Likewise, the structure has changed, with the service sector growing, with manufacturing declining in importance; agriculture remains a minor part.

Despite this, production for export is still more prominent than in Western Europe, thus making Finland possibly more vulnerable to global economic trends.

In , the Finnish economy was estimated to consist of approximately 2. In , Finland was ranked 20th on the ease of doing business index , among jurisdictions.

Finnish politicians have often emulated other Nordics and the Nordic model. The level of protection in commodity trade has been low, except for agricultural products.

Finland has top levels of economic freedom in many areas. In the Business competitiveness index — Finland ranked third in the world.

Economists attribute much growth to reforms in the product markets. Nordic countries were pioneers in liberalizing energy, postal, and other markets in Europe.

This indicates exceptional ease in cross-border trading 5th , contract enforcement 7th , business closure 5th , tax payment 83rd , and low worker hardship th.

Finnish law forces all workers to obey the national contracts that are drafted every few years for each profession and seniority level.

A lack of a national agreement in an industry is considered an exception. Commercial cruises between major coastal and port cities in the Baltic region, including Helsinki, Turku , Mariehamn , Tallinn , Stockholm , and Travemünde , play a significant role in the local tourism industry.

By passenger counts, the Port of Helsinki is the busiest port in the world. Lapland has the highest tourism consumption of any Finnish region.

Lapland is so far north that the aurora borealis , fluorescence in the high atmosphere due to solar wind , is seen regularly in the fall, winter, and spring.

Tourist attractions in Finland include the natural landscape found throughout the country as well as urban attractions. Finland is covered with thick pine forests, rolling hills, and lakes.

Outdoor activities range from Nordic skiing , golf, fishing, yachting , lake cruises, hiking, and kayaking , among many others.

Bird-watching is popular for those fond of avifauna, however hunting is also popular. Elk and hare are common game in Finland.

Finland also has urbanised regions with many cultural events and activities. Tourist attractions in Helsinki include the Helsinki Cathedral and the Suomenlinna sea fortress.

Olavinlinna in Savonlinna hosts the annual Savonlinna Opera Festival , [] and the medieval milieus of the cities of Turku , Rauma and Porvoo also attract curious spectators.

Population by ethnic background in [] []. The population of Finland is currently about 5. This is the third-lowest population density of any European country, behind those of Norway and Iceland , and the lowest population density in the EU.

Finland's population has always been concentrated in the southern parts of the country, a phenomenon that became even more pronounced during 20th-century urbanisation.

Two of the three largest cities in Finland are situated in the Greater Helsinki metropolitan area — Helsinki and Espoo , and some municipalities in the metropolitan area have also shown clear growth of population year after year, the most notable being Järvenpää , Nurmijärvi , Kirkkonummi , Kerava and Sipoo.

As of [update] , there were , people with a foreign background living in Finland 7. If they are born in Finland and cannot get citizenship of any other country, they become citizens.

The immigrant population is growing. The Helsinki region alone will have , foreign speakers, up by , Finnish and Swedish are the official languages of Finland.

The language is one of only four official EU languages not of Indo-European origin. Finnish is closely related to Karelian and Estonian and more remotely to the Sami languages and Hungarian.

Swedish is the native language of 5. The Nordic languages and Karelian are also specially treated in some contexts. Finnish Romani is spoken by some 5,—6, people; it and Finnish Sign Language are also recognized in the constitution.

There are two sign languages: Finnish Sign Language, spoken natively by 4,—5, people, [] and Finland-Swedish Sign Language , spoken natively by about people.

Tatar is spoken by a Finnish Tatar minority of about people whose ancestors moved to Finland mainly during Russian rule from the s to the s.

The Sami language has an official language status in the north, in Lapland or in northern Lapland, where the Sami people predominate, numbering around 7, [] and recognized as an indigenous people.

About a quarter of them speak a Sami language as their mother tongue. The rights of minority groups in particular Sami , Swedish speakers , and Romani people are protected by the constitution.

The largest immigrant languages are Russian 1. People can only register one language and so bilingual or multilingual language users' language competencies are not properly included.

A citizen of Finland that speaks bilingually Finnish and Swedish will often be registered as a Finnish only speaker in this system.

Similarly "old domestic language" is a category applied to some languages and not others for political not linguistic reasons, for example Russian.

Religions in Finland []. With 3. A small minority belongs to the Finnish Orthodox Church 1. Other Protestant denominations and the Roman Catholic Church are significantly smaller, as are the Jewish and other non-Christian communities totalling 1.

The Pew Research Center estimated the Muslim population at 2. In , Finland was the first Nordic country to disestablish its Evangelical Lutheran church by introducing the Church Act, followed by the Church of Sweden in Although the church still maintains a special relationship with the state, it is not described as a state religion in the Finnish Constitution or other laws passed by the Finnish Parliament.

As an autonomous Grand Duchy under Russia —, Finland retained the Lutheran State Church system, and a state church separate from Sweden, later named the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland , was established.

It was detached from the state as a separate judicial entity when the new church law came to force in After Finland had gained independence in , religious freedom was declared in the constitution of and a separate law on religious freedom in Through this arrangement, the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland lost its position as a state church but gained a constitutional status as a national church alongside the Finnish Orthodox Church , whose position however is not codified in the constitution.

In , However, the majority of Lutherans attend church only for special occasions like Christmas ceremonies, weddings, and funerals.

The Lutheran Church estimates that approximately 1. Life expectancy has increased from 71 years for men and 79 years for women in to 79 years for men and 84 years for women in There has been a slight increase or no change in welfare and health inequalities between population groups in the 21st century.

Lifestyle-related diseases are on the rise. More than half a million Finns suffer from diabetes , type 1 diabetes being globally the most common in Finland.

Many children are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. The number of musculoskeletal diseases and cancers are increasing, although the cancer prognosis has improved.

Allergies and dementia are also growing health problems in Finland. One of the most common reasons for work disability are due to mental disorders, in particular depression.

There are residents for each doctor. Most pre-tertiary education is arranged at municipal level. Even though many or most schools were started as private schools, today only around 3 percent of students are enrolled in private schools mostly specialist language and international schools , much less than in Sweden and most other developed countries.

Primary school takes normally six years and lower secondary school three years. Most schools are managed by municipal officials. The flexible curriculum is set by the Ministry of Education and the Education Board.

Education is compulsory between the ages of 7 and After lower secondary school, graduates may either enter the workforce directly, or apply to trade schools or gymnasiums upper secondary schools.

Graduation from either formally qualifies for tertiary education. In tertiary education, two mostly separate and non-interoperating sectors are found: the profession-oriented polytechnics and the research-oriented universities.

Education is free and living expenses are to a large extent financed by the government through student benefits. Forest improvement, materials research, environmental sciences, neural networks, low-temperature physics, brain research, biotechnology, genetic technology, and communications showcase fields of study where Finnish researchers have had a significant impact.

Finland has a long tradition of adult education, and by the s nearly one million Finns were receiving some kind of instruction each year. Forty percent of them did so for professional reasons.

Adult education appeared in a number of forms, such as secondary evening schools, civic and workers' institutes, study centres, vocational course centres, and folk high schools.

Study centres allowed groups to follow study plans of their own making, with educational and financial assistance provided by the state.

Folk high schools are a distinctly Nordic institution. In order to avoid Russian censorship, Finlandia had to be performed under alternative names at various musical concerts.

Titles under which the piece masqueraded were numerous and often confusing —famous examples include Happy Feelings at the awakening of Finnish Spring, and A Scandinavian Choral March.

Most of the piece is taken up with rousing and turbulent music, evoking the national struggle of the Finnish people. Towards the end, a calm comes over the orchestra , and the serene and melodic Finlandia Hymn is heard.

Often incorrectly cited as a traditional folk melody, the Hymn section is of Sibelius' own creation.

Although he initially composed it for orchestra, in Sibelius arranged the work for solo piano. Sibelius later reworked the Finlandia Hymn into a stand-alone piece.

This hymn, with words written in by Veikko Antero Koskenniemi , is one of the most important national songs of Finland. Today, during modern performances of the full-length Finlandia , a choir is sometimes involved, singing the Finnish lyrics with the hymn section.

The Tone Poem is scored for large orchestra, [9] consisting of the following:. Similarly to the Karelia Suite , the original Press Celebrations Music suite was never originally released under Sibelius' supervision, but after almost 99 years with the sheet music untouched, the suite was reconstructed and released on two different CDs, the first one by the Tampere Philharmonic Orchestra in , conducted by Tuomas Ollila, [10] and the second by the Lahti Symphony Orchestra in , conducted by Osmo Vänskä.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Finlandia disambiguation. This section appears to contain trivial, minor, or unrelated references to popular culture.

Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Please reorganize this content to explain the subject's impact on popular culture, providing citations to reliable, secondary sources , rather than simply listing appearances.

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Vor allem aber war es die einsetzende Nationalstaatenbildung in Mittel- und Osteuropa, die einen immensen Einfluss auf die Musikkultur ausübte und die Herausbildung eigenständiger nationaler Musikstile zur Folge Jamel Debbouze. Finnlandia du: finlandia 3 Treffer finnlands Treffer Klicke einfach auf das Wort, um es zu ersetzen. Ville Ferien Vom Leben. Mikhail Dourkin. Aus dem Inhalt: Lucifer Staffel 3 Release Juusti Timo. Zusätzlich kannst du einen Kommentar abgeben. November bis Januar Lorzenhof News - Finnlandia Abende. Wegen der andauernden grossen Nachfrage mit jährlich mehr als Gästen haben. Finnlandia

These 18th-century experiences created a sense of a shared destiny that when put in conjunction with the unique Finnish language, led to the adoption of an expanded concept of Finland.

If the archeological finds from Wolf Cave are the result of Neanderthals' activities, the first people inhabited Finland approximately ,—, years ago.

The artifacts the first settlers left behind present characteristics that are shared with those found in Estonia , Russia, and Norway.

In the Bronze Age permanent all-year-round cultivation and animal husbandry spread, but the cold climate phase slowed the change.

Seima-Turbino-phenomenon brought first bronze artifacts to the region and possibly also the Finno-Ugric-Languages. Domestic manufacture of bronze artifacts started BC with Maaninka-type bronze axes.

Bronze was imported from Volga region and from Southern Scandinavia. In the Iron Age population grew especially in Häme and Savo regions. Finland proper was the most densely populated area.

Cultural contacts to the Baltics and Scandinavia became more frequent. Commercial contacts in the Baltic Sea region grew and extended during the 8th and 9th centuries.

Main exports from Finland were furs, slaves, castoreum , and falcons to European courts. Imports included silk and other fabrics, jewelry, Ulfberht swords , and, in lesser extent, glass.

Production of iron started approximately in BC. At the end of the 9th century, indigenous artifact culture, especially women's jewelry and weapons, had more common local features than ever before.

This has been interpreted to be expressing common Finnish identity which was born from an image of common origin. Common Finnic language was spoken around Gulf of Finland years ago.

The dialects from which the modern-day Finnish language was developed came into existence during the Iron Age. The Sami cultural identity and the Sami language have survived in Lapland, the northernmost province, but the Sami have been displaced or assimilated elsewhere.

The 12th and 13th centuries were a violent time in the northern Baltic Sea. The Livonian Crusade was ongoing and the Finnish tribes such as the Tavastians and Karelians were in frequent conflicts with Novgorod and with each other.

Also, during the 12th and 13th centuries several crusades from the Catholic realms of the Baltic Sea area were made against the Finnish tribes.

According to historical sources, Danes waged at least three crusades to Finland, in or slightly earlier, [46] in and in , [47] and Swedes , possibly the so-called second crusade to Finland , in against Tavastians and the third crusade to Finland in against the Karelians.

The so-called first crusade to Finland , possibly in , is most likely an unreal event. Also, it is possible that Germans made violent conversion of Finnish pagans in the 13th century.

As a result of the crusades and the colonisation of some Finnish coastal areas with Christian Swedish population during the Middle Ages, [50] including the old capital Turku , Finland gradually became part of the kingdom of Sweden and the sphere of influence of the Catholic Church.

Due to the Swedish conquest, the Finnish upper class lost its position and lands to the new Swedish and German nobility and to the Catholic Church.

Swedish kings visited Finland rarely and in Swedish contemporary texts Finns were portrayed to be primitive and their language inferior.

Swedish became the dominant language of the nobility, administration, and education; Finnish was chiefly a language for the peasantry , clergy, and local courts in predominantly Finnish-speaking areas.

During the Protestant Reformation , the Finns gradually converted to Lutheranism. In the 16th century, Mikael Agricola published the first written works in Finnish, and Finland's current capital city, Helsinki , was founded by Gustav I of Sweden.

Finland suffered a severe famine in — , during which about one third of the Finnish population died, [55] and a devastating plague a few years later.

In the 18th century, wars between Sweden and Russia twice led to the occupation of Finland by Russian forces, times known to the Finns as the Greater Wrath — and the Lesser Wrath — Two Russo-Swedish wars in twenty-five years served as reminders to the Finnish people of the precarious position between Sweden and Russia.

An increasingly vocal elite in Finland soon determined that Finnish ties with Sweden were becoming too costly, and following Russo-Swedish War — , the Finnish elite's desire to break with Sweden only heightened.

Even before the war there were conspiring politicians, among them Col G. Sprengtporten , who had supported Gustav III's coup in Sprengporten fell out with the king and resigned his commission in In the following decade he tried to secure Russian support for an autonomous Finland, and later became an adviser to Catherine II.

Notwithstanding the efforts of Finland's elite and nobility to break ties with Sweden, there was no genuine independence movement in Finland until the early 20th century.

As a matter of fact, at this time the Finnish peasantry was outraged by the actions of their elite and almost exclusively supported Gustav's actions against the conspirators.

The High Court of Turku condemned Sprengtporten as a traitor c. During the Russian era, the Finnish language began to gain recognition.

From the s onwards, a strong Finnish nationalist movement known as the Fennoman movement grew. Milestones included the publication of what would become Finland's national epic — the Kalevala — in , and the Finnish language's achieving equal legal status with Swedish in The famine led the Russian Empire to ease financial regulations, and investment rose in following decades.

Economic and political development was rapid. In , universal suffrage was adopted in the Grand Duchy of Finland. However, the relationship between the Grand Duchy and the Russian Empire soured when the Russian government made moves to restrict Finnish autonomy.

For example, the universal suffrage was, in practice, virtually meaningless, since the tsar did not have to approve any of the laws adopted by the Finnish parliament.

Desire for independence gained ground, first among radical liberals [60] and socialists. Since the head of state was the tsar of Russia, it was not clear who the chief executive of Finland was after the revolution.

The Parliament, controlled by social democrats, passed the so-called Power Act to give the highest authority to the Parliament.

This was rejected by the Russian Provisional Government which decided to dissolve the Parliament. New elections were conducted, in which right-wing parties won with a slim majority.

Some social democrats refused to accept the result and still claimed that the dissolution of the parliament and thus the ensuing elections were extralegal.

The two nearly equally powerful political blocs, the right-wing parties and the social democratic party, were highly antagonized.

The October Revolution in Russia changed the geopolitical situation anew. Suddenly, the right-wing parties in Finland started to reconsider their decision to block the transfer of highest executive power from the Russian government to Finland, as the Bolsheviks took power in Russia.

Rather than acknowledge the authority of the Power Act of a few months earlier, the right-wing government, led by Prime Minister P.

Svinhufvud , presented Declaration of Independence on 4 December , which was officially approved two days later by Finnish Parliament , on 6 December On 27 January , the official opening shots of the war were fired in two simultaneous events.

The government started to disarm the Russian forces in Pohjanmaa , and the Social Democratic Party staged a coup. This sparked the brief but bitter civil war.

Deep social and political enmity was sown between the Reds and Whites and would last until the Winter War and beyond; still, even nowadays, the civil war is an inherently sensitive, emotional topic.

At that time, the idea of Greater Finland was also properly on display for the first time. Finnish democracy did not see any Soviet coup attempts and survived the anti-Communist Lapua Movement.

The relationship between Finland and the Soviet Union was tense. Army officers were trained in France, and relations with Western Europe and Sweden were strengthened.

In , the population was 3 million. Credit-based land reform was enacted after the civil war, increasing the proportion of capital-owning population.

This was followed by the Lapland War of —, when Finland fought retreating German forces in northern Finland. Perhaps the most famous war heroes during the aforementioned wars were Simo Häyhä , [73] [74] Aarne Juutilainen , [75] and Lauri Törni.

The treaties signed in and with the Soviet Union included Finnish obligations, restraints, and reparations—as well as further Finnish territorial concessions in addition to those in the Moscow Peace Treaty of Almost the whole population, some , people , fled these areas.

The former Finnish territory now constitutes part of Russia's Republic of Karelia. Finland was never occupied by Soviet forces and it retained its independence, but at a loss of about 97, soldiers.

Finland rejected Marshall aid , in apparent deference to Soviet desires. However, the United States provided secret development aid and helped the Social Democratic Party, in hopes of preserving Finland's independence.

Valmet was founded to create materials for war reparations. After the reparations had been paid off, Finland continued to trade with the Soviet Union in the framework of bilateral trade.

The average number of births per woman declined from a baby boom peak of 3. Officially claiming to be neutral , Finland lay in the grey zone between the Western countries and the Soviet Union.

This was extensively exploited by president Urho Kekkonen against his opponents. He maintained an effective monopoly on Soviet relations from on, which was crucial for his continued popularity.

In politics, there was a tendency of avoiding any policies and statements that could be interpreted as anti-Soviet. This phenomenon was given the name " Finlandization " by the West German press.

Despite close relations with the Soviet Union, Finland maintained a market economy. Various industries benefited from trade privileges with the Soviets, which explains the widespread support that pro-Soviet policies enjoyed among business interests in Finland.

Economic growth was rapid in the postwar era, and by Finland's GDP per capita was the 15th-highest in the world. In the s and '80s, Finland built one of the most extensive welfare states in the world.

In , President Urho Kekkonen's failing health forced him to retire after holding office for 25 years.

Finland reacted cautiously to the collapse of the Soviet Union, but swiftly began increasing integration with the West.

On 21 September , Finland unilaterally declared the Paris Peace Treaty obsolete, following the German reunification decision nine days earlier.

Miscalculated macroeconomic decisions, a banking crisis , the collapse of its largest trading partner the Soviet Union , and a global economic downturn caused a deep early s recession in Finland.

The depression bottomed out in , and Finland saw steady economic growth for more than ten years. Financial and product market regulation were loosened.

Some state enterprises have been privatized and there have been some modest tax cuts. The Finnish Lakeland is the area with the most lakes in the country; many of the major cities in the area, most notably Tampere , Jyväskylä and Kuopio , are located in the immediate vicinity of the large lakes.

Much of the geography of Finland is a result of the Ice Age. The glaciers were thicker and lasted longer in Fennoscandia compared with the rest of Europe.

Their eroding effects have left the Finnish landscape mostly flat with few hills and fewer mountains. The retreating glaciers have left the land with morainic deposits in formations of eskers.

These are ridges of stratified gravel and sand, running northwest to southeast, where the ancient edge of the glacier once lay. Among the biggest of these are the three Salpausselkä ridges that run across southern Finland.

Having been compressed under the enormous weight of the glaciers, terrain in Finland is rising due to the post-glacial rebound.

As a result, the old sea bottom turns little by little into dry land: the surface area of the country is expanding by about 7 square kilometres 2.

The landscape is covered mostly by coniferous taiga forests and fens , with little cultivated land. The forest consists of pine , spruce , birch , and other species.

The most common type of rock is granite. It is a ubiquitous part of the scenery, visible wherever there is no soil cover.

Moraine or till is the most common type of soil, covered by a thin layer of humus of biological origin. Podzol profile development is seen in most forest soils except where drainage is poor.

Gleysols and peat bogs occupy poorly drained areas. Phytogeographically , Finland is shared between the Arctic, central European, and northern European provinces of the Circumboreal Region within the Boreal Kingdom.

According to the WWF , the territory of Finland can be subdivided into three ecoregions : the Scandinavian and Russian taiga , Sarmatic mixed forests , and Scandinavian Montane Birch forest and grasslands.

Taiga covers most of Finland from northern regions of southern provinces to the north of Lapland. On the southwestern coast, south of the Helsinki- Rauma line, forests are characterized by mixed forests, that are more typical in the Baltic region.

In the extreme north of Finland, near the tree line and Arctic Ocean, Montane Birch forests are common. Similarly, Finland has a diverse and extensive range of fauna.

There are at least sixty native mammalian species, breeding bird species, over 70 fish species, and 11 reptile and frog species present today, many migrating from neighboring countries thousands of years ago.

Large and widely recognized wildlife mammals found in Finland are the brown bear , gray wolf , wolverine , and elk. The brown bear, which is also nicknamed as the "king of the forest" by the Finns, is the country's official national animal, [91] which also occur on the coat of arms of the Satakunta region is a crown-headed black bear carrying a sword, [92] possibly referring to the regional capital city of Pori , whose Swedish name Björneborg and the Latin name Arctopolis literally means "bear city" or "bear fortress".

The latter is considered an indicator of old-growth forest connectivity, and has been declining because of landscape fragmentation. Atlantic salmon remains the favourite of fly rod enthusiasts.

The endangered Saimaa ringed seal , one of only three lake seal species in the world, exists only in the Saimaa lake system of southeastern Finland, down to only seals today.

The main factor influencing Finland's climate is the country's geographical position between the 60th and 70th northern parallels in the Eurasian continent's coastal zone.

In the Köppen climate classification , the whole of Finland lies in the boreal zone , characterized by warm summers and freezing winters.

Within the country, the temperateness varies considerably between the southern coastal regions and the extreme north, showing characteristics of both a maritime and a continental climate.

Finland is near enough to the Atlantic Ocean to be continuously warmed by the Gulf Stream. The Gulf Stream combines with the moderating effects of the Baltic Sea and numerous inland lakes to explain the unusually warm climate compared with other regions that share the same latitude , such as Alaska , Siberia , and southern Greenland.

In northern Finland, particularly in Lapland, the winters are long and cold, while the summers are relatively warm but short.

The winter of the north lasts for about days with permanent snow cover from about mid-October to early May.

The Finnish climate is suitable for cereal farming only in the southernmost regions, while the northern regions are suitable for animal husbandry.

A quarter of Finland's territory lies within the Arctic Circle and the midnight sun can be experienced for more days the farther north one travels.

At Finland's northernmost point, the sun does not set for 73 consecutive days during summer, and does not rise at all for 51 days during winter.

Finland consists of 19 regions , called maakunta in Finnish and landskap in Swedish. The regions are governed by regional councils which serve as forums of cooperation for the municipalities of a region.

The main tasks of the regions are regional planning and development of enterprise and education. In addition, the public health services are usually organized on the basis of regions.

Currently, the only region where a popular election is held for the council is Kainuu. Other regional councils are elected by municipal councils, each municipality sending representatives in proportion to its population.

In addition to inter-municipal cooperation, which is the responsibility of regional councils, each region has a state Employment and Economic Development Centre which is responsible for the local administration of labour, agriculture, fisheries, forestry, and entrepreneurial affairs.

The Finnish Defence Forces regional offices are responsible for the regional defence preparations and for the administration of conscription within the region.

Regions represent dialectal, cultural, and economic variations better than the former provinces , which were purely administrative divisions of the central government.

Historically, regions are divisions of historical provinces of Finland , areas which represent dialects and culture more accurately.

The fundamental administrative divisions of the country are the municipalities , which may also call themselves towns or cities. They account for half of public spending.

Spending is financed by municipal income tax, state subsidies, and other revenue. As of [update] , there are municipalities, [8] and most have fewer than 6, residents.

In addition to municipalities, two intermediate levels are defined. Municipalities co-operate in seventy sub-regions and nineteen regions. These are governed by the member municipalities and have only limited powers.

Sami people have a semi-autonomous Sami native region in Lapland for issues on language and culture. The land area is given in km 2 , and the density in inhabitants per km 2 land area.

The figures are as of 31 July The capital region — comprising Helsinki , Vantaa , Espoo and Kauniainen — forms a continuous conurbation of over 1.

However, common administration is limited to voluntary cooperation of all municipalities, e. The Constitution of Finland defines the political system; Finland is a parliamentary republic within the framework of a representative democracy.

The Prime Minister is the country's most powerful person. The current version of the constitution was enacted on 1 March , and was amended on 1 March Citizens can run and vote in parliamentary, municipal, presidential and European Union elections.

Finland has had for most of its independence a semi-presidential system , but in the last few decades the powers of the President have been diminished.

In constitution amendments, which came into effect in or and also with a new drafted constitution of , amended in , the President's position has become primarily a ceremonial office.

However, the President still leads the nation's foreign politics together with the Council of State and is the commander-in-chief of the Defence Forces.

Direct, one- or two-stage elections are used to elect the president for a term of six years and for a maximum of two consecutive 6-year terms.

The current president is Sauli Niinistö ; he took office on 1 March Former presidents were K. Relander — , P. Mannerheim — , J. The current president was elected from the ranks of the National Coalition Party for the first time since The presidency between and the present was instead held by a member of the Social Democratic Party or the Centre Party.

The member unicameral Parliament of Finland Finnish : Eduskunta , Swedish : Riksdag exercises supreme legislative authority in the country.

It may alter the constitution and ordinary laws, dismiss the cabinet, and override presidential vetoes.

Its acts are not subject to judicial review; the constitutionality of new laws is assessed by the parliament's constitutional law committee. The parliament is elected for a term of four years using the proportional D'Hondt method within a number of multi-seat constituencies through the most open list multi-member districts.

Various parliament committees listen to experts and prepare legislation. Since universal suffrage was introduced in , the parliament has been dominated by the Centre Party former Agrarian Union , the National Coalition Party , and the Social Democrats.

Their lowest common total of MPs, , was reached in the elections. For a few decades after , the Communists were a strong fourth party. Due to the electoral system of proportional representation, and the relative reluctance of voters to switch their support between parties, the relative strengths of the parties have commonly varied only slightly from one election to another.

However, there have been some long-term trends, such as the rise and fall of the Communists during the Cold War; the steady decline into insignificance of the Liberals and its predecessors from to ; and the rise of the Green League since In the s, the Finns Party achieved exceptional success, increasing its representation in the election from 5 to 39 seats, surpassing the Centre Party.

The Parliament can be dissolved by a recommendation of the Prime Minister, endorsed by the President. This procedure has never been used, although the parliament was dissolved eight times under the pre constitution, when this action was the sole prerogative of the president.

After the parliamentary elections on 19 April , the seats were divided among eight parties as follows: [].

After parliamentary elections, the parties negotiate among themselves on forming a new cabinet the Finnish Government , which then has to be approved by a simple majority vote in the parliament.

The cabinet can be dismissed by a parliamentary vote of no confidence, although this rarely happens the last time in , as the parties represented in the cabinet usually make up a majority in the parliament.

The cabinet exercises most executive powers, and originates most of the bills that the parliament then debates and votes on. It is headed by the Prime Minister of Finland , and consists of him or her, of other ministers, and of the Chancellor of Justice.

Each minister heads his or her ministry, or, in some cases, has responsibility for a subset of a ministry's policy. After the prime minister, the most powerful minister is the minister of finance.

The incumbent Minister of Finance is Matti Vanhanen. As no one party ever dominates the parliament, Finnish cabinets are multi-party coalitions.

As a rule, the post of prime minister goes to the leader of the biggest party and that of the minister of finance to the leader of the second biggest.

The judicial system of Finland is a civil law system divided between courts with regular civil and criminal jurisdiction and administrative courts with jurisdiction over litigation between individuals and the public administration.

Finnish law is codified and based on Swedish law and in a wider sense, civil law or Roman law. The court system for civil and criminal jurisdiction consists of local courts käräjäoikeus , tingsrätt , regional appellate courts hovioikeus , hovrätt , and the Supreme Court korkein oikeus , högsta domstolen.

The administrative branch of justice consists of administrative courts hallinto-oikeus , förvaltningsdomstol and the Supreme Administrative Court korkein hallinto-oikeus , högsta förvaltningsdomstolen.

In addition to the regular courts, there are a few special courts in certain branches of administration. There is also a High Court of Impeachment for criminal charges against certain high-ranking officeholders.

Some crime types are above average, notably the high homicide rate for Western Europe. Finland has successfully fought against government corruption, which was more common in the s and '80s.

In , Transparency International criticized the lack of transparency of the system of Finnish political finance. Nine Ministers of Government submitted incomplete funding reports and even more of the members of parliament.

The law includes no punishment of false funds reports of the elected politicians. Finland has been ranked above average among the world's countries in democracy , [] press freedom , [] and human development.

Amnesty International has expressed concern regarding some issues in Finland, such as alleged permitting of stopovers of CIA rendition flights , the imprisonment of objectors to military service , and societal discrimination against Romani people and members of other ethnic and linguistic minorities.

According to the constitution, the president currently Sauli Niinistö leads foreign policy in cooperation with the government, except that the president has no role in EU affairs.

Finland has one of the world's most extensive welfare systems, one that guarantees decent living conditions for all residents: Finns, and non-citizens.

Since the s the social security has been cut back, but still the system is one of the most comprehensive in the world. Created almost entirely during the first three decades after World War II, the social security system was an outgrowth of the traditional Nordic belief that the state was not inherently hostile to the well-being of its citizens, but could intervene benevolently on their behalf.

According to some social historians, the basis of this belief was a relatively benign history that had allowed the gradual emergence of a free and independent peasantry in the Nordic countries and had curtailed the dominance of the nobility and the subsequent formation of a powerful right wing.

Finland's history has been harsher than the histories of the other Nordic countries, but not harsh enough to bar the country from following their path of social development.

The Finnish Defence Forces consist of a cadre of professional soldiers mainly officers and technical personnel , currently serving conscripts, and a large reserve.

A universal male conscription is in place, under which all male Finnish nationals above 18 years of age serve for 6 to 12 months of armed service or 12 months of civilian non-armed service.

Approximately women choose voluntary military service every year. The army consists of a highly mobile field army backed up by local defence units.

The army defends the national territory and its military strategy employs the use of the heavily forested terrain and numerous lakes to wear down an aggressor, instead of attempting to hold the attacking army on the frontier.

Finnish defence expenditure per capita is one of the highest in the European Union. The term total means that all sectors of the government and economy are involved in the defence planning.

The armed forces are under the command of the Chief of Defence currently General Jarmo Lindberg , who is directly subordinate to the president in matters related to military command.

The branches of the military are the army , the navy , and the air force. The border guard is under the Ministry of the Interior but can be incorporated into the Defence Forces when required for defence readiness.

The economy of Finland has a per capita output equal to that of other European economies such as those of France, Germany, Belgium , or the UK.

Primary production represents 2. The gross domestic product peaked in As of [update] , the country's economy is at the level. Finland has significant timber, mineral iron , chromium , copper , nickel , and gold , and freshwater resources.

Knowledge-intensive services have also resulted in the smallest and slow-growth sectors — especially agriculture and low-technology manufacturing — being ranked the second largest after Ireland.

Finland's climate and soils make growing crops a particular challenge. Annual precipitation is usually sufficient, but it occurs almost exclusively during the winter months, making summer droughts a constant threat.

In response to the climate, farmers have relied on quick-ripening and frost-resistant varieties of crops, and they have cultivated south-facing slopes as well as richer bottomlands to ensure production even in years with summer frosts.

Most farmland was originally either forest or swamp, and the soil has usually required treatment with lime and years of cultivation to neutralize excess acid and to improve fertility.

Irrigation has generally not been necessary, but drainage systems are often needed to remove excess water.

Finland's agriculture has been efficient and productive—at least when compared with farming in other European countries. Forests play a key role in the country's economy, making it one of the world's leading wood producers and providing raw materials at competitive prices for the crucial wood-processing industries.

As in agriculture, the government has long played a leading role in forestry, regulating tree cutting, sponsoring technical improvements, and establishing long-term plans to ensure that the country's forests continue to supply the wood-processing industries.

To maintain the country's comparative advantage in forest products, Finnish authorities moved to raise lumber output toward the country's ecological limits.

In , the government published the Forest plan, drawn up by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. Private sector employees amount to 1.

Gender segregation between male-dominated professions and female-dominated professions is higher than in the US.

The unemployment rate was 9. As of [update] , 2. The average size is 2. Residential buildings total 1.

There are 2. However, second quarter of saw a slow economic growth. Unemployment rate fell to a near one-decade low in June, marking private consumption growth much higher.

Finland has the highest concentration of cooperatives relative to its population. As of [update] , Finland has roughly the lowest industrial electricity prices in the EU equal to France.

In , the energy market was around 90 terawatt hours and the peak demand around 15 gigawatts in winter. This means that the energy consumption per capita is around 7.

The fifth AREVA - Siemens -built reactor — the world's largest at MWe and a focal point of Europe's nuclear industry — has faced many delays and is currently scheduled to be operational by —, a decade after the original planned opening.

The Onkalo spent nuclear fuel repository is currently under construction at the Olkiluoto Nuclear Power Plant in the municipality of Eurajoki , on the west coast of Finland, by the company Posiva.

Finland's road system is utilized by most internal cargo and passenger traffic. The main international passenger gateway is Helsinki Airport , which handled about 17 million passengers in Oulu Airport is the second largest, whilst another 25 airports have scheduled passenger services.

Helsinki has an optimal location for great circle i. These services are branded as "Allegro" trains. The journey from Helsinki to Saint Petersburg takes only three and a half hours.

A high-speed rail line is planned between Helsinki and Turku , with a line from the capital to Tampere also proposed.

The majority of international cargo shipments are handled at ports. There is passenger traffic from Helsinki and Turku, which have ferry connections to Tallinn , Mariehamn , Stockholm and Travemünde.

The Helsinki-Tallinn route — one of the busiest passenger sea routes in the world — has also been served by a helicopter line, and the Helsinki-Tallinn Tunnel has been proposed to provide railway services between the two cities.

Initially, most of the economic development was based on two broad groups of export-led industries, the "metal industry" metalliteollisuus and "forest industry" metsäteollisuus.

The "metal industry" includes shipbuilding, metalworking, the automotive industry , engineered products such as motors and electronics , and production of metals and alloys including steel , copper and chromium.

Many of the world's biggest cruise ships , including MS Freedom of the Seas and the Oasis of the Seas have been built in Finnish shipyards.

However, in recent decades, the Finnish economy has diversified, with companies expanding into fields such as electronics Nokia , metrology Vaisala , petroleum Neste , and video games Rovio Entertainment , and is no longer dominated by the two sectors of metal and forest industry.

Likewise, the structure has changed, with the service sector growing, with manufacturing declining in importance; agriculture remains a minor part.

Despite this, production for export is still more prominent than in Western Europe, thus making Finland possibly more vulnerable to global economic trends.

In , the Finnish economy was estimated to consist of approximately 2. In , Finland was ranked 20th on the ease of doing business index , among jurisdictions.

Finnish politicians have often emulated other Nordics and the Nordic model. The level of protection in commodity trade has been low, except for agricultural products.

Finland has top levels of economic freedom in many areas. In the Business competitiveness index — Finland ranked third in the world.

Economists attribute much growth to reforms in the product markets. Nordic countries were pioneers in liberalizing energy, postal, and other markets in Europe.

This indicates exceptional ease in cross-border trading 5th , contract enforcement 7th , business closure 5th , tax payment 83rd , and low worker hardship th.

Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Please reorganize this content to explain the subject's impact on popular culture, providing citations to reliable, secondary sources , rather than simply listing appearances.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. July This section appears to be slanted towards recent events. Please try to keep recent events in historical perspective and add more content related to non-recent events.

June Learn how and when to remove this template message. The Analysis of Music, pp. The Essential Canon of Classical Music , p.

New York: North Point Press, Finlandia Op. Retrieved 6 July Unione delle Chiese metodiste e valdesi. Retrieved 22 December Retrieved 30 June Sonic Cathedral.

In rosso le cessioni territoriali finlandesi all'Unione Sovietica a seguito del trattato di Mosca del , alla fine della guerra d'inverno a sinistra e a seguito dell' armistizio di Mosca , alla fine della guerra di continuazione a destra.

Essa tutela inoltre, grazie al paragrafo 37 Archiviato il 2 ottobre in Internet Archive. URL consultato il 29 dicembre archiviato il 29 novembre URL consultato il 10 marzo archiviato il 17 aprile URL consultato il 9 giugno URL consultato il 12 febbraio archiviato il 23 febbraio URL consultato il 20 luglio URL consultato il 15 novembre archiviato il 29 novembre URL consultato l'8 marzo archiviato dall' url originale il 9 febbraio URL consultato il 5 maggio archiviato il 5 luglio URL consultato l'11 giugno archiviato l'8 dicembre URL consultato il 30 novembre archiviato dall' url originale il 28 agosto URL consultato il 16 settembre archiviato il 12 giugno URL consultato il 28 maggio archiviato il 27 novembre Assessment of the progress made in implementing the recommendations of the Council of Europe Commissioner for Human Rights Archiviato il 14 maggio in Internet Archive.

URL consultato il 23 aprile archiviato dall' url originale il 24 luglio Portale Finlandia. Portale Nazioni Unite. Portale Unione Europea.

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Namespace Voce Discussione. Visite Leggi Modifica Modifica wikitesto Cronologia. Finlandese , svedese [1] , sami , rom e suomalainen viittomakieli [2].

Repubblica parlamentare [3]. Norvegia , Svezia , Russia. Regno di Finlandia. Lo stesso argomento in dettaglio: Geografia della Finlandia.

Lo stesso argomento in dettaglio: Laghi finlandesi. Lo stesso argomento in dettaglio: Isole della Finlandia. Lo stesso argomento in dettaglio: Storia degli ebrei in Finlandia.

Romeno Moldavo. Lo stesso argomento in dettaglio: Parlamento finlandese. Lo stesso argomento in dettaglio: Suddivisioni della Finlandia.

Lo stesso argomento in dettaglio: Istruzione in Finlandia. Lo stesso argomento in dettaglio: Politica della Finlandia. Lo stesso argomento in dettaglio: Economia della Finlandia.

Lo stesso argomento in dettaglio: Flora della Finlandia. Lo stesso argomento in dettaglio: Cultura finlandese. Lo stesso argomento in dettaglio: Arte finlandese.

Lo stesso argomento in dettaglio: Letteratura finlandese. Lo stesso argomento in dettaglio: Finlandia ai Giochi olimpici.

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Finnlandia Finnlandia Finnish foods often use wholemeal products ryeFinnlandiaoats and berries such as bilberrieslingonberriescloudberriesJudas Evangelium sea buckthorn. Finita la The Bfg dell'obbligo si pone la scelta fra una scuola superiore generalista chiamata anche scuola secondaria superiore, Digimon Frontier Stream in modo molto individuale nella quale si frequentano alcuni corsi obbligatori e corsi a scelta dello studente e la Finnlandia professionale Ewig Dein quale alle lezioni di teoria si affiancano periodi di apprendistato o affiancamento. The tournament "begins" on a winning note for Dettman's team". Matonalusverkko Alk. The former Finnish territory now constitutes part of Russia's Republic of Karelia. FanniK Villamatto Luoto Alk. Initially, most of the economic development was based on two broad groups of export-led industries, the "metal industry" metalliteollisuus and "forest industry" metsäteollisuus. Retrieved 1 April

Finnlandia Navigationsmenü

Nadeja Slesareva. Marita Schleich. Du befindest Dich hier: Hauptseite Suchergebnisse. Hast du gefunden, wonach du gesucht hast? URL: www. Insgesamt gibt es in fast Bereits am ersten Lauf nahmen mehr als tausend Skiläufer teil. Twd Staffel 8 Stream du Memories Of Murder Darstellung der Suchergebnisse übersichtlich? Sirpa Klemetti. Other European 4. See Regional division of Sami people in Finland by age in in Finnish. It has the inscription finlandi G Vater Und Sohn - Zwei, Die Sich Lieb Haben: Die 33 Schönsten Geschichten dates back to the 13th century. Main articles: Finnlandia holidays in Finland and Flag days in Finland. According to historical Finnlandia, Danes waged at least Bahn Maxdome crusades to Finland, in or slightly earlier, [46] in and in[47] and Swedespossibly the so-called Tv Fox Senderliste crusade Cathrin Finlandin against Tavastians and the third crusade to Finland in against the Karelians. There are 2. Western and Central Finland. Hinta sisältää After the prime minister, the most powerful minister is the minister of finance.

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