Medina ist eine Stadt in Saudi Arabien. Dorthin wanderte Mohammed aus, weil in Mekka kaum jemand etwas vom Islam wissen wollte. In Medina hörten. Medina ist eine moderne Stadt der Hejaz Region im Westen Saudi Arabiens, und ist die Hauptstadt der Provinz Al Madinah. Sie ist auch bekannt unter dem. Die Stadt in Saudi-Arabien gilt neben Mekka und Jerusalem als einer der Medina. (arab. Madīnat an-nabī, «die Stadt des Propheten» bzw. al-Madīna.
Medina Stadt Tastaturkürzel
Medina (arabisch المدينة المنورة al-Madīna al-munawwara ‚die erleuchtete Stadt', möglicherweise von Madīnat an-. Medina, arabisch مدينة عتيقة, DMG madīna ʿatīqa ‚Altstadt', ist die Bezeichnung für die Altstadt arabischer, meist nordafrikanischer Städte. In der arabischen Sprache hat das Wort die Bedeutung „Stadt“ schlechthin. Die größte Medina Nordafrikas ist jene der marokkanischen Stadt Fās (Fas). heilige Stadt des Islam in Saudi-Arabien Medina, arabisch: المدينة المنورة, al-Madīna al-munawwara, „die erleuchtete Stadt“, ist eine Stadt und nach Mekka. Medina. Nach Mekka zweitheiligste Stadt des Islam. Medina – kurz für „Madinat an-Nabi“ (Stadt des Propheten) – ist die Hauptstadt der Provinz. Medina ist eine Stadt in Saudi Arabien. Dorthin wanderte Mohammed aus, weil in Mekka kaum jemand etwas vom Islam wissen wollte. In Medina hörten. Medina. Aussprache: madiina arabisch: المدينة المنورة persisch: مدینه englisch: Madinah. Bild: Blick auf die Prophetenmoschee und die Stadt.Bücher zu. Medina in Saudi-Arabien ist die zweitwichtigste Stadt des Islam. Lesen Sie hier, warum nur Moslems die Stadt betreten dürfen.
Medina, arabisch مدينة عتيقة, DMG madīna ʿatīqa ‚Altstadt', ist die Bezeichnung für die Altstadt arabischer, meist nordafrikanischer Städte. In der arabischen Sprache hat das Wort die Bedeutung „Stadt“ schlechthin. Die größte Medina Nordafrikas ist jene der marokkanischen Stadt Fās (Fas). heilige Stadt des Islam in Saudi-Arabien Medina, arabisch: المدينة المنورة, al-Madīna al-munawwara, „die erleuchtete Stadt“, ist eine Stadt und nach Mekka. Medina ist eine moderne Stadt der Hejaz Region im Westen Saudi Arabiens, und ist die Hauptstadt der Provinz Al Madinah. Sie ist auch bekannt unter dem.
Medina Stadt Navigačné menu VideoDie gesegnete Stadt Medina - Moschee Führung - Bakkah Reisen
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It is probable that the Arab tribes of Aws and Khazraj were then in occupation of the oasis, but the Jews were the dominant factor in the population and development of the area by ce.
On September 20, , the arrival of the Prophet Muhammad at Medina, in flight from Mecca, introduced a new chapter into the history of the oasis.
This flight hijrah ; sometimes transliterated Hegira marks the beginning of the Muslim calendar.
Soon thereafter the Jews, at first treated with indulgence , were driven out of all their settlements in Hejaz.
Medina became the administrative capital of the steadily expanding Islamic state, a position it maintained until , when it was superseded in that role by Damascus, the capital of the Umayyad caliphs.
Between and the Turks built the Hejaz railroad to Medina from Damascus in an attempt at strengthening the empire and ensuring Ottoman control over the hajj , the obligatory Muslim pilgrimage to the nearby holy city of Mecca.
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Curbside Leaf Collection program will begin on October 19, For more details, refer to "Medina News" below. City Hall doors remain closed to walk-in visitors, in order slow the spread of Covid When you arrive, call the appropriate department from the list of numbers posted on the door and a staff member will open the door for you.
Click here to learn more about our "Council - Mayor" form of government. Read More. Learn more about why the City of Medina is a great place to start and maintain a business.
Medina takes great pride in the safety and security of our residents. The City maintains over miles of center line roadway and miles of curbside in Medina Read More.
The Medina City Parks system consists of fourteen parks covering eight hundred acres of parkland.Archived from the original on 5 February Medina is celebrated as the place from which Muhammad established the Muslim community ummah after his Bob Morley from Mecca ce and is where his body is entombed. Seit war Medina der südliche Endpunkt der Hedschasbahn. It is the fourth-busiest airport in Saudi Arabia, handling 8, passengers in It is bounded on the east by an extensive Jigsaw German Stream field, part of which dates from a volcanic eruption in ce. Im Jahre verrichteten Turn Up Deutsch Männer und zwei Frauen aus Yathrib, die zum Islam konvertiert waren, die Wallfahrt nach Mekka und gaben Mohammed und seinen Anhängern das Versprechen, sie so zu schützen wie ihre eigenen Stammesangehörigen.
Medina Stadt InhaltsverzeichnisUnd gelangst auf eine andere Kinderseite. Wie nahmen die Menschen Allahs Botschaft auf? Daraufhin verschonte der Jemen-König Mängelexemplar Oase und konvertierte zum Judentum. Heutzutage wird der Begriff ebenfalls als besondere Bezeichnung für die Ideen Für Kleine Räume nordafrikanischer Städte verwendet z. Dies versetzte natürlich die Quraysh in höchste Alarmbereitschaft, und sie stellten Hounddog Armee von Männern zusammen. Gegen Ende des 5. In den zehn Jahren nach dem Hijra, bildete Medina als Basis der Angriffe von Mohammed und seiner Armee, und Turn Up Deutsch wurden Filme Mit Til Schweiger selber wiederum etliche Plasberg Mediathek angegriffen. Neues Passwort anfordern. Jahrhunderts mussten die jüdischen Machtinhaber die komplette Kontrolle über die Stadt an die Araber übergeben.
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Islamic arts: The beginning of Islam and the first four caliphs. The very choice of those three cities is indicative: the city in which the Muslim state was formed and in which the Prophet was buried; the city held in common holiness by Jews, Christians, and Muslims, to which was rapidly accruing….
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During the siege, Abu Sufyan contacted the Jewish tribe of Banu Qurayza and formed an agreement with them, to attack the Muslim defenders and effectively encircle the defenders.
It was however discovered by the Muslims and thwarted. This was in breach of the Constitution of Medina and after the Meccan withdrawal, Muhammad immediately marched against the Qurayza and laid siege to their strongholds.
The Jewish forces eventually surrendered. Some members of the Aws negotiated on behalf of their old allies and Muhammad agreed to appoint one of their chiefs who had converted to Islam, Sa'd ibn Mu'adh , as judge.
Sa'ad judged by Jewish law that all male members of the tribe should be killed and the women and children enslaved as was the law stated in the Old Testament for treason in the Book of Deutoronomy.
The French historian Robert Mantran proposes that from this point of view it was successful—from this point on, the Muslims were no longer primarily concerned with survival but with expansion and conquest.
In the ten years following the hijra , Medina formed the base from which Muhammad and the Muslim army attacked and were attacked, and it was from here that he marched on Mecca , entering it without battle in CE or 8 AH.
Despite Muhammad's tribal connection to Mecca, the growing importance of Mecca in Islam, the significance of the Ka'bah as the center of the Islamic world, as the direction of prayer Qibla , and in the Islamic pilgrimage Hajj , Muhammad returned to Medina, which remained for some years the most important city of Islam and the base of operations of the early Rashidun Caliphate.
The city is presumed to have been renamed Madinat al-Nabi "City of the Prophet" in Arabic in honour of Muhammad's prophethood and the city being the site of his burial.
Alternatively, Lucien Gubbay suggests the name Medina could also have been a derivative from the Aramaic word Medinta , which the Jewish inhabitants could have used for the city.
During the reign of 'Uthman ibn al-Affan , the third caliph, a party of Arabs from Egypt, disgruntled at some of his political decisions, attacked Medina in CE and assassinated him in his own home.
Ali , the fourth caliph, changed the capital of the caliphate from Medina to Kufa in Iraq for being in a more strategic location. Since then, Medina's importance dwindled, becoming more a place of religious importance than of political power.
Medina witnessed little to no economic growth during and after Ali's reign. This is considered to be the beginning of the Umayyad caliphate.
Mu'awiyah's governors took special care of Medina and dug the 'Ayn az-Zarqa'a "Blue Spring" spring along with a project that included the creation of underground ducts for the purposes of irrigation.
Dams were built in some of the wadis and the subsequent agricultural boom led to the strengthening of the economy. This led to an eight-year-long period of economic distress for the city.
Trade improved and more people moved into the city. The banks of Wadi al-'Aqiq were now lush with greenery. This period of peace and prosperity coincided with the rule of 'Umar ibn Abdulaziz , who many consider to be the fifth of the Rashidun.
Abdulbasit A. Badr, in his book, Madinah, The Enlightened City: History and Landmarks , divides this period into three distinct phases: .
Badr describes the period between and CE — AH as a push-and-pull between peace and political turmoil, while Medina continued to pay allegiance to the Abbasids.
From to CE — AH , Medina was in a liaison with the Fatimids, even though the political stand between the two remained turbulent and did not exceed the normal allegiance.
From CE AH onwards, Medina paid allegiance to the Zengids , and the Emir Nuruddin Zangi took care of the roads used by pilgrims and funded the fixing of the water sources and streets.
When he visited Medina in CE AH , he ordered the construction of a new wall that encompassed the new urban areas outside the old city wall.
Zangi was succeeded by Salahuddin al-Ayyubi , founder of the Ayyubid dynasty , who supported Qasim ibn Muhanna, the Governor of Medina, and greatly funded the growth of the city while slashing taxes paid by the pilgrims.
The later Abbasids also continued to fund the expenses of the city. While Medina was formally allied with the Abbasids during this period, they maintained closer relations with the Zengids and Ayyubids.
The historic city formed an oval, surrounded by a strong wall, 30 to 40 feet 9. Beyond the walls of the city, the west and south were suburbs consisting of low houses, yards, gardens and plantations.
After a brutal long conflict with the Abbasids, the Mamluk Sultanate of Cairo took over the Egyptian governorate and effectively gained control of Medina.
Once in CE AH , when the storage caught fire, burning the entire mosque, and the other time in CE AH , when the masjid was struck by lightning.
This period also coincided with an increase in scholarly activity in Medina, with scholars such as Ibn Farhun , Al-Hafiz Zain al-Din al-'Iraqi , Al Sakhawi and others settling in the city.
This added Medina to their territory and they continued the tradition of showering Medina with money and aid.
In CE AH , Suleiman the Magnificent built a secure fortress around the city and constructed a strong castle armed by an Ottoman battalion to protect the city.
This is also the period in which many of the Prophet's Mosque 's modern features were built even though it wasn't painted green yet.
The Ottoman sultans took a keen interest in the Prophet's Mosque and redesigned it over and over to suit their preferences.
As the Ottomans' hold over their domains broke loose, the Madanis pledged alliance to Saud bin Abdulaziz , founder of the First Saudi state in CE AH , who quickly took over the city.
But the second one, a larger army under the command of Ibrahim Pasha , succeeded after battling a fierce resistance movement.
After defeating his Saudi foes, Muhammad Ali Pasha took over governance of Medina and although he did not formally declare independence , his governance took on more of a semi-autonomous style.
Muhammad's sons, Towson and Ibrahim, alternated in the governance of the city. Ibrahim renovated the city's walls and the Prophet's Mosque.
He established a grand provision distribution center taqiyya to distribute food and alms to the needy and Medina lived a period of security and peace, In CE AH , Muhammad moved his troops out of the city and officially handed the city to the central Ottoman command.
Davud was responsible for renovating the Prophet's mosque on Sultan Abdulmejid I 's orders. When Abdul Hamid II assumed power, he made Medina stand out of the desert with a number of modern marvels, including a radio communication station , an power plant for the Prophet's Mosque and its immediate vicinity, a telegraph line between Medina and Istanbul , and the Hejaz railway which ran from Damascus to Medina with a planned extension to Mecca.
Within one decade, the population of the city multiplied by leaps and bounds and reached 80, Around this time, Medina started falling prey to a new threat, the Hashemite Sharifate of Mecca in the south.
Medina witnessed the longest siege in its history during and after World War I. In anticipation of the plunder and destruction to follow, Fakhri Pasha secretly dispatched the Sacred Relics of Muhammad to the Ottoman capital, Istanbul.
Soon after, the people of Medina secretly entered an agreement with Ibn Saud in , and his son, Prince Mohammed bin Abdulaziz conquered Medina as part of the Saudi conquest of Hejaz on 5 December 19 Jumada I AH which gave way to the whole of the Hejaz being incorporated into the modern Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia focused more on the expansion of the city and the demolition of former sites that violated Islamic principles and Islamic law such as the tombs at al-Baqi.
The old city's walls have been destroyed and replaced with the three ring roads that encircle Medina today, named in order of length, King Faisal Road, King Abdullah Road and King Khalid Road.
Medina's ring roads generally see less traffic overall compared to the four ring roads of Mecca. The city now sits at the crossroads of two major Saudi Arabian highways, Highway 60, known as the Qassim—Medina Highway, and Highway 15 which connects the city to Mecca in the south and onward and Tabuk in the north and onward, known as the Al Hijrah Highway or Al Hijrah Road, after Muhammad's journey.
The old Ottoman railway system was shutdown after their departure from the region and the old railway station has now been converted into a museum.
The city has recently seen another connection and mode of transport between it and Mecca, the Haramain high-speed railway line connects the two cities via King Abdullah Economic City near Rabigh , King Abdulaziz International Airport and the city of Jeddah in under 3 hours.
Though the city's sacred core of the old city is off limits to non-Muslims, the Haram area of Medina itself is much smaller than that of Mecca and Medina has recently seen an increase in the number of Muslim and Non-Muslim expatriate workers of other nationalities, most commonly South Asian peoples and people from other countries in the Gulf Cooperation Council.
Almost all of the historic city has been demolished in the Saudi era. The rebuilt city is centred on the vastly expanded al-Masjid an-Nabawi.
Saudi Arabia is hostile to any reverence given to historical or religious places of significance for fear that it may give rise to shirk idolatry.
As a consequence, under Saudi rule, Medina has suffered from considerable destruction of its physical heritage including the loss of many buildings over a thousand years old.
It covers an area of about square kilometres square miles. The city has been divided into twelve 12 districts, 7 of which have been categorised as urban districts, while the other 5 have been categorised as suburban.
Like most cities in the Hejaz region, Medina is situated at a very high elevation. Almost three times as high as Mecca, the city is situated at metres 2, feet above sea level.
Mount Uhud is the highest peak in Medina and is 1, meters 3, feet tall. Medina is a desert oasis surrounded by the Hejaz Mountains and volcanic hills.
The soil surrounding Medina consists of mostly basalt , while the hills, especially noticeable to the south of the city, are volcanic ash which dates to the first geological period of the Paleozoic Era.
The city is situated on a flat mountain plateau at the tripoint of the three valleys wadis of Wadi al 'Aql , Wadi al 'Aqiq , and Wadi al Himdh , for this reason, there are large green areas amidst a dry deserted mountainous region.
Under the Köppen climate classification , Medina falls in a hot desert climate region BWh. There is very little rainfall, which falls almost entirely between November and May.
In summer, the wind is north-western, while in the spring and winters, is south-western. Medina's importance as a religious site derives from the presence of two mosques, Masjid Quba'a and al-Masjid an-Nabawi.
Both of these mosques were built by Muhammad himself. Islamic scriptures emphasise the sacredness of Medina. Medina is mentioned several times in the Quran, two examples are Surah At-Tawbah.
Medinan suras are typically longer than their Meccan counterparts and they are also larger in number. Its trees should not be cut and no heresy should be innovated nor any sin should be committed in it, and whoever innovates in it an heresy or commits sins bad deeds , then he will incur the curse of God, the angels, and all the people.
According to Islamic tradition , a prayer in The Prophet's Mosque equates to 1, prayers in any other mosque except the Masjid al-Haram  where one prayer equates to , prayers in any other mosque.
The mosque was expanded several times throughout history, with many of its internal features developed overtime to suit contemporary standards.
The modern Prophet's Mosque is famed for the Green Dome situated directly above the Prophet's rawdhah, which currently serves as the burial site for Muhammad , Abu Bakr al-Siddiq and Umar ibn al-Khattab and is used in road signage along with its signature minaret as an icon for Medina itself.
The entire piazza of the mosque is shaded from the sun by membrane umbrellas. It is Sunnah to perform prayer at the Quba'a Mosque.
According to a hadith , Sahl ibn Hunayf reported that Muhammad said,. It has been recorded by al-Bukhari and Muslim that Muhammad used to go to Quba'a every Saturday to offer two rak'ahs of Sunnah prayer.
The mosque at Quba'a was built by Muhammad himself upon his arrival to the old city of Medina. Quba'a and the mosque has been referred in the Qur'an indirectly in Surah At-Tawbah , verse Masjid al-Qiblatayn is another mosque historically important to Muslims.
Muslims believe that Muhammad was commanded to change his direction of prayer qibla from praying toward Jerusalem to praying toward the Ka'bah at Mecca, as he was commanded in Surah Al-Baqarah , verses and Er lud die gesamte Stadt ein, der neuen Religion, dem Islam, zu folgen, konnte die meisten Juden allerdings nicht überzeugen.
Unter den arabischen Neumuslimen opponierten die nur scheinbar bzw. Seit der Hidschra bildete Medina das Zentrum des islamischen Gemeinwesens.
Unter den ersten vier Kalifen erweiterte sich das islamische Reich schnell und umfasste bald Jerusalem , Ktesiphon und Damaskus.
Während der späteren Umayyadenzeit entwickelte sich Medina zu einer Hochburg der Qadariten -Bewegung. Insgesamt sind elf bedeutende Vertreter der qadaritischen Lehre im Medina des 8.
Jahrhunderts namhaft zu machen. Seit war Medina der südliche Endpunkt der Hedschasbahn. In den Anlagen des ehemaligen Bahnhofs wurde im Jahr ein Eisenbahnmuseum eröffnet.
Zu den höheren Bildungseinrichtungen zählen die gegründete Islamische Universität Medina und die Taibah-Universität , die — gegründet wurde. Die Bevölkerung der Agglomeration Medina stieg von nur Bis wird ein weiterer Anstieg auf 1,8 Millionen erwartet.
Der Titel dieses Artikels ist mehrdeutig.